Biomass, used for energy purposes, has turned out to be one of the most efficient, clean and sustainable sources to cover the energy needs of the whole world. Currently, using suitable boilers and equipment, biomass is capable of replacing any conventional thermal application powered by non-renewable sources.

As an energy source, biomass can either be used directly via combustion to produce heat and electricity or indirectly after converting it to various forms of biofuel. Conversion of biomass to biofuel can be achieved by different methods which are broadly classified into: thermal, chemical, and biochemical. Some chemical constituents of plant biomass include lignins, cellulose, and hemicellulose.

Biomass conversion can be divided into: primary and secondary. Primary conversion of biomass transforms initial biomass into fuel for various types of combustion plants. Secondary conversion of biomass is used to produce useful energy, which requires: furnace, gas and steam turbines, microturbines, internal combustion engines and fuel cells.